African-Born Enslaved People, Brazil, 1830s
English: Slaves from Cabinda, Quiloa, Rebola e Mina. Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil. Traduit de l’Allemand (Paris, 1835; also published in same year in German). Reprinted in Viagem Pitoresca Através do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro, 1972), and in color from original water colors, in Viagem Pitoresca Através do Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989) [Both 1835 French and German original editions were published in black/white].
Português do Brasil: Escravos de Cabinda, Quiloa, Rebola e Mina.Date c.1830
Johann Moritz Rugendas, Voyage Pittoresque dans le Bresil. Traduit de l’Allemand (Paris, 1835; also published in same year in German). Reprinted in Viagem Pitoresca Através do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro, 1972; images shown on this website), and in color from original water colors, in Viagem Pitoresca Através do Brasil (Editora Itatiaia Limitada, Editora da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1989) [NOTE: both 1835 French and German original editions were published in black/white].
Four Africans representing different areas, showing facial and body decorations; clockwise from top left: cabinda, quiloa, rebolla, mina. For an analysis of Rugendas’ drawings, as these were informed by his anti-slavery views, see Robert W. Slenes, African Abrahams, Lucretias and Men of Sorrows: Allegory and Allusion in the Brazilian Anti-slavery Lithographs (1827-1835) of Johann Moritz Rugendas (Slavery & Abolition, vol. 23 , pp. 147-168).
The names signify: “Variable REGION: Region or Nacion(birth) of Slave, Africa & Brazil (Place of Birth)” *Important to observe how Europeans enslaved and brought people to the Americas from the places they “controlled.”
HISTORY OF CABINDA
15th century : Ngoy kingdom, founded by Bantu-speaking people, in the south of Cabinda. The economy is based on the slave trade.
1783 : the Portuguese build a fort in Cabinda. Ngoy ally with neighbouring Kakongo and with the French to destroy it.
1830s : exporting slaves have gradually brought wealth and power to the Ngoy nobility at the expense of the king, who was rendered ineffectual. The kingdom finally disintegrates into petty principalities after the nobles failed to elect a new king.
29th september 1883 : treaty of Tchifuma with the Kakongo kingdom.
29th décember 1884 : treaty of Tchikamba with the Loango kingdom.
1er fébruary 1885 : treaty of Simulambuco with the Ngoio kingdom. Henceforth, Cabinda is entirely under portuguese protectorate. Angola has been a portuguese colony since 1482.
1933 : the new portuguese fundamental law maintains among its overseas provinces the distinction between Angola and Cabinda.
1956 : Portugal binds Cabinda to Angola.
The term “Mina,” when encountered as an ethnic designation of enslaved Africans in the Americas in the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, has commonly been interpreted as referring to persons brought from the area of the “Gold Coast” (“Costa da Mina” in Portuguese usage), corresponding roughly to modern Ghana, who are further commonly presumed to have been mainly speakers of the Akan languages (Fante, Twi, etc.) dominant on that section of the coast and its immediate hinterland. In a recently published paper, however, Gwendolyn Hall has questioned this conventional interpretation, and suggested instead that most of those called “Mina” in the Americas were actually from the “Slave Coast” to the east (modern southeastern Ghana, Togo, and Bénin), and hence speakers of the languages nowadays generally termed “Gbe” (though formerly more commonly “Ewe”), including Ewe, Adja, and Fon. Given the numerical strength of the “Mina” presence in the Americas, as Hall rightly notes, this revision would substantially alter our understanding of ethnic formation in the Americas.
(Source: diasporadash, via browngirlinorange)